Permaculture Designers Manual




Section 4.14 –

Closed Spherical Models in Permaculture

Accretion and Expulsion

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Although trees (including tree roots) may approach spherical form, the best examples are found in spherical bodies in space.

These deflect light, dust and gas towards them, and may capture materials. In their early formation, they themselves may have had dense cores that assembled their share of galactic materials and around these cores a torus of matter of low- or high -speed rotation can form. This is the model presented for most bodies (New Scientist, 4 April ’85, pp. 12-16). A general model is given in Figure 4.21.

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As matter accumulates in this way, bodies can respond by:

Becoming more dense – to a limit of 1014  g/cm3; Swelling or expanding (producing shatter effects); and Ejecting material at the poles.   Or any combination of these depending on the state of the matter attached or attracted to the core. For pulsars, the ejection is radio waves, and for black holes high-speed gas plumes. For trees, of course, we find expansion and transpiration, not localized to the axis of growth. However, along the Z-Z (ejection) axis of Figure 4.1, rotating tori speed up ejection at north poles, and slow it down at south poles, so that less viscous materials are likely to be emitted at north polar emitters.

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This general effect may be portrayed in one model, but each case needs study. Weak gravitational waves permeate the astronomical system as pulsers permeate or orchestrate biological systems, aiding both dispersal and accumulation depending on the sense of rotation of the accreting system, or the electromagnetic fields interacting with incoming particles. It seems probable that weak fields within the sun create its pulsers, which proceed from pole to equator as a roll or torus of turbulence over an 11-year period.